# All posts by George Pruitt

George Pruitt - Author - Blogger - Programmer - Technician Bachelor of Science in Computer Science from UNC-Asheville Levo Oculos Meos In Montes

# Clenow’s Trend Following System

Its a new decade! Time to see what’s up with Trend Following.

I am a huge fan of Andreas Clenow’s books, and how he demonstrated that a typical trader could replicate the performance of most large Trend Following CTAs and not pay the 2% / 20% management/incentive combo fees.  So. I felt the system that he described in his book would be a great representation of The State of Trend Following.  At the same time I am going to demonstrate TradingSimula18 (the software included in my latest book).

## System Description

Take a look at my last post.  I provide the EasyLanguage and a pretty good description of Clenow’s strategy.

``````#---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Start programming your great trading ideas below here - don't touch stuff above
#---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#  Define Long, Short, ExitLong and ExitShort Levels - mind your indentations
ATR = sAverage(myTrueRange,30,curBar,1)
posSize = 2000/(ATR*myBPV)
posSize = max(int(posSize),1)
posSize = min(posSize,20)
avg1 = xAverage(myClose,marketVal5[curMarket],50,curBar,1)
avg2 = xAverage(myClose,marketVal6[curMarket],100,curBar,1)
marketVal5[curMarket] = avg1
marketVal6[curMarket] = avg2
donchHi = highest(myHigh,50,curBar,1)
donchLo = lowest(myLow,50,curBar,1)

if mp == 1 : marketVal1[curMarket] = max(marketVal1[curMarket],myHigh[curBar-1]- 3 * ATR)
if mp ==-1 : marketVal2[curMarket] = min(marketVal2[curMarket],myLow[curBar-1]+ 3 * ATR)
#  Long Entry
if avg1 > avg2 and myHigh[curBar-1] == donchHi and mp !=1:
price = myOpen[curBar]
marketVal1[curMarket] = price - 3 * ATR
if mp <= -1:
#  Long Exit
if mp == 1 and myClose[curBar-1] <= marketVal1[curMarket] and barsSinceEntry > 1:
price = myOpen[curBar]
#  Short Entry
if avg1 < avg2 and myLow[curBar-1] == donchLo and mp !=-1:
price = myOpen[curBar];numShares = posSize
marketVal2[curMarket] = price + 3 * ATR
if mp >= 1:
#  Short Exit
if mp == -1 and myClose[curBar-1] >= marketVal2[curMarket] and barsSinceEntry > 1:
price = myOpen[curBar]
tradeName = "Sxit"; numShares = curShares
#----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# - Do not change code below - trade, portfolio accounting - our great idea should stop here
#----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
``````

I am going to go over this very briefly.   I know that many of the readers of my blog have attempted to use Python and the various packages out there and have given up on it.  Quantopia and QuantConnect are great websites, but I feel they approach back-testing with a programmer in mind.  This was the main reason I created TS-18 – don’t get me wrong its not a walk in the park either, but it doesn’t rely on external libraries to get the job done.  All the reports I show here are generated from the data created solely by TS-18.  Plus it is very modular – Step 1 leads to Step2 and on and on.   Referring to the code I calculate the ATR (average true range) by calling the simple average function sAverage.  I pass it myTrueRanges, 30, curBar and 1.   I am looking for the average true range over the last 30 days.  I then move onto my position sizing – posSize = \$2,000 / ATR in \$s.  PosSize must fit between 1 and 20 contracts.  The ATR calculation can get rather small for some markets and the posSize can get rather large.  Avg1 and Avg2 are exponential moving averages of length 50 and 100DonchHi and donchLo are the highest high and lowest low of the past 50 days.   If mp == 1 (long position) then a trailing stop (marketVal1) is set to whichever is higher – the current marketVal1 or the yesterday’s High – 3 X ATR;  the trailing stop tracks new intra-trade highs.  The trailing stop for the short side, marketVal2 is calculated in a similar manner, but low prices are used as well as a positive offset of 3 X ATR.

Now the next section of code is quite a bit different than say EasyLanguage, but parallels some of the online Python paradigms. Here you must test the current bar’s extremes against the donchHi if you are flat and marketVal1 (the trailing stop variable) if you are long.  If flat you also test the low of the bar against donchLo.  The relationship between avg1 and avg2 are also examined.  If the testing criteria is true, then its up to you to assign the correct price, posSize and tradeName.  So you have four independent if-then constructs:

• Long Entry – if flat test to see if a long position should be initiated
• Long Exit – if Long then test to see if a liquidation should be initiated
• Short Entry – if flat test to see if a short position should be initiated
• Short Exit – if Short then test to see if a liquidation should be initiated

That’s it – all of the other things are handled by TS-18.  Now that I have completely bored you out of your mind, let’s move onto some results.

### Sector Performance from 2000

From this chart it doesn’t make much sense to trade MEATS, SOFTS or GRAINS with a Trend Following approach or does it?

In the next post, I will go over the results with more in depth and possibly propose some ideas that might or might not help.  Stay Tuned!

# Free Trend Following System

Here is a free Trend Following System that I read about on Andreas Clenow’s www.followthetrend.com website and from his book.  This is my interpretation of the rules as they were explained.  However the main impetus behind this post wasn’t to provide a free trading system, but to show how you can program a simple system with a complete input interface and program a tracking indicator.   You might be asking what is a “tracking indicator?”  We use a tracking indicator to help provide insight to what the strategy is doing and what it might do in the near future.  The indicator can let you know that a new signal is imminent and also what the risk is in a graphical form.  The indicator can also plot the indicators that are used in the strategy itself.

## Step 1:  Program the Strategy

This system is very simple.  Trade on a 50 day Donchian in the direction of the trend and use a 3 X ATR trailing stop.  So the trend is defined as bullish when the 50-day exponential moving average is greater than the 100-day exponential moving average.  A bearish trend is defined when the 50-day is below the 100-day.  Long positions are initiated on the following day when a new 50 day high has been established and the trend is bullish.  Selling short occurs when the trend is bearish and a new 50 day low is establish.  The initial stop  is set to 3 X ATR below the high of the day of entry.  I tested using a 3 X ATR stop initially from the entryPrice for protection on the day of entry, but it made very little difference.  As the trade moves more into your favor, the trailing stop ratchets up and tracks the higher intra-trade extremes.  Eventually once the market reverses you get stopped out of a long position 3 X ATR from the highest high since you entered the long trade.  Hopefully, with a big winner.   The Clenow model also uses a position sizing equation that uses ATR to determine market risk and \$2000 for the allocated amount to risk.  Size= 2000 / ATR – this equation will normalize size across a portfolio of markets.

Here is the code.

``````//Based on Andreas Clenow's description from www.followingthetrend.com
//This is my interpretation and may or may not be what Andreas intended
//Check his books out at amazon.com
//
inputs: atrLen(30),trailATRMult(3);
vars: avg1(0),avg2(0),lXit(0),sXit(0),posSize(0),atr(0);

avg1  = xaverage(c,xAvgShortLen);
avg2  = xaverage(c,xAvgLongLen);

atr = avgTrueRange(atrLen);
posSize = maxList(1,intPortion(risk\$Alloc/(atr*bigPointValue)));

If marketPosition <> 1 and avg1 > avg2 and buyTrigPrice = highest(buyTrigPrice,hhllLen) then buy posSize contracts next bar at open;
If marketPosition <> -1 and avg1 < avg2 and shortTrigPrice = lowest(shortTrigPrice,hhllLen) then sellshort posSize contracts next bar at open;

If marketPosition = 0 then
Begin
lXit = o - trailATRMult * atr ;
sXit = o + trailATRMult * atr;
//	if c < lXit then Sell currentcontracts contracts next bar at open;
//	If c > sXit then buyToCover currentcontracts contracts next bar at open;
end;

If marketPosition = 1 then
begin
lXit = maxList(lXit,h - trailATRMult * atr);
If c < lXit then sell currentContracts contracts next bar at open;
end;

If marketPosition = -1 then
begin
sXit = minList(sXit,l + trailATRMult * atr);
If c > sXit then buyToCover currentContracts contracts next bar at open;
end;``````
Cleanow Simple Trend Following System

What I like about this code is how you can use it as a template for any trend following approach.  All the variables that could be optimized are included as inputs.  Many may not know that you can actually change the data series that you want to use as your signal generator right in the input.  Here I have provided two inputs : buyTrigPrice(H), shortTrigPrice(L).  If you want to use the closing price, then all you need to do is change the H and L to C.  The next lines of code performs the calculations needed to calculate the trend.  PosSize is then calculated next.  Here I am dividing the variable risk\$Alloc by atr*bigPointValue.  Basically I am taking \$2000 and dividing the average true range over the past 30 days multiplied by the point value of the market being tested.  Always remember when doing calculations with \$s you have to convert whatever else you are using into dollars as well.  The ATR is expressed in the form of a price difference.  You can’t divide dollars by a price component, hence the multiplication by bigPointValue.  So now we have the trend calcuation and the position sizing taken care of and all we need now is the trend direction and the entry levels.  If avg1 > avg2 then the market is in a bullish posture, and if today’s High = highest(High,50) days back then initiate a long position with posSize contracts at the next bar’s openNotice how I used the keyword contracts after posSize.  This let’s TS know that I want to trade more than one contract.  If the current position is flat I set the lXit and sXit price levels to the open -/+ 3 X ATR.  Once a position (long or short) is initiated then I start ratcheting the trailing stop up or down.  Assuming a long position, I compare the current lXit and the current bar’s HIGH- 3 X ATR and take the larger of the two valuesSo lXit always moves up and never down.  Notice if the close is less than lXit I used the keyword currentContracts and contracts in the directive to exit a long trade.  CurrentContracts contains the current number of contracts currently long and contracts informs TS that more than one contract is being liquidated.  Getting out of a short position is exactly the same but in a different direction.

## Step 2: Program the System Tracking Indicator

Now you cant take the exact code and eliminate all the order directives and use it to create a tracking indicator.  Take a look at this code:

``````//Based on Andreas Clenow's description from www.followingthetrend.com
//This is my interpretation and may or may not be what Andreas intended
//Check his books out at amazon.com
//
inputs: atrLen(30),trailATRMult(3);
vars: avg1(0),avg2(0),lXit(0),sXit(0),posSize(0),atr(0),mp(0);

avg1  = xaverage(c,xAvgShortLen);
avg2  = xaverage(c,xAvgLongLen);

atr = avgTrueRange(atrLen);

plot1(avg1,"stXavg");
plot2(avg2,"ltXavg");

If avg1 > avg2 and buyTrigPrice = highest(buyTrigPrice,hhllLen) then mp = 1;
If avg1 < avg2 and shortTrigPrice = lowest(shortTrigPrice,hhllLen) then mp = -1;

If mp = 0 then
Begin
lXit = o - trailATRMult * atr ;
sXit = o + trailATRMult * atr;
end;

If mp = 1 then
begin
lXit = maxList(lXit,h - trailATRMult * atr);
plot3(lXit,"LongTrail");
If c < lXit then mp = 0;
end;

If mp = -1 then
begin
sXit = minList(sXit,l + trailATRMult * atr);
plot4(sXit,"ShortTrail");
If c > sXit then mp = 0;
end;``````

However, you do need to keep track if the underlying strategy is long or short and you can do this by pretending you are the computer and using the mp variable.  You know if yesterdays avg1 > avg2 and HIGH = highestHigh(HIGH,50), then a long position should have been initiated.  If this happens just set mp to 1You set mp to -1 by checking the trend and lowestLow(LOW,50).  Once you know the mp or implied market position then you can calculate the lXit and sXit.  You will always plot the moving averages to help determine trend direction, but you only plot the lXit and sXit when a position is on.  So plot3 and plot4 should only be plotted when a position is long or short.

Here is a screenshot of the strategy and tracking indicator. Notice how the Yellow and Cyan plots follow the correct market position.  You will need to tell TS not to connect these plot lines when they are not designed to be plotted.

### Turn-Off Auto Plot Line Connection

Do this for Plot3 and Plot4 and you will be good to go. I hope you found this post useful.  Also don’t forget to check out my new book at Amazon.com.  If you really want to learn programming that will help across different platforms I think it would be a great learning experience. Here is a neat little day trader system that takes advantage of what some technicians call a “CLEAR OUT” trade.  Basically traders push the market through yesterday’s high and then when everybody jumps on board they pull the rug out from beneath you.  This strategy tries to take advantage of this.  As is its OK, but it could be made into a complete system with some filtering.  Its a neat base to start your day-trading schemes from.

But first have you ever encountered this one when you only want to go long once during the day. I have logic that examines marketPosition, and if it changes from a non 1 value to 1 then I increment buysToday.  Since there isn’t an intervening bar to establish a change in marketPosition, then buysToday does not get incremented and another buy order is issued.  I don’t want this.  Remember to plot on the @ES.D.

Here’s how I fixed it and also the source of the CLEAR-OUT day-trade in its entirety.  I have a \$500 stop and a \$350 take profit, but it simply trades way too often.  Have fun with this one – let me now if you come up with something.

``````inputs: clearOutAmtPer(0.1),prot\$Stop(325),prof\$Obj(500),lastTradeTime(1530);

If d <> d then
Begin
coSell = false;
sellsToday = 0;
end;

mp = marketPosition;
If mp <> mp and mp = 1 then buysToday = buysToday + 1;
If mp <> mp and mp = -1 then sellsToday = sellsToday + 1;

If h > highD(1) + clearOutAmtPer * (highD(1) - lowD(1)) then coSell = true;
If l < lowD(1) - clearOutAmtPer * (highD(1) - lowD(1)) then coBuy = true;

If totNumTrades <> totalTrades and mp = 0 and mp = 0 and positionProfit(1) < 0 and entryPrice(1) > exitPrice(1) then buysToday = buysToday + 1;
If totNumTrades <> totalTrades and mp = 0 and mp = 0 and positionProfit(1) < 0 and entryPrice(1) < exitPrice(1) then sellsToday =sellsToday + 1;

If sellsToday = 0 and t < lastTradeTime and coSell = true then sellShort ("COSell") next bar at highD(1) - minMove/priceScale stop;

setStopLoss(prot\$stop);
Setprofittarget(prof\$Obj);
setExitOnClose;``````
Look at lines 22 and 23 - the entry/exit same bar fix # An Introductory Video for TradingSimula18 – From My Latest Book

Just a very quick video to give you an idea on how easy it is to get up and running.  This is a Bollinger Band Script that is included in Trend Following Systems: A DIY Project – Batteries Included

# Get My Latest Book-TrendFollowing Systems: A DIY Project – Batteries Included

Just wanted to let you know that my latest book has just been published.

Trend Following Systems: A DIY Project – Batteries Included: Can You Reboot and Fix Yesterday’s Algorithms to Work with Today’s Markets?

Trend Following Systems: A DIY Project – Batteries Included

This book introduces my new Python back-tester, TradingSimula-18.  It is completely and I mean completely self contained.  All you need is the latest version of Python and you will be up and running trading systems in less than 5 minutes.  Fifteen years of data on 30 futures is included (data from Quandl).  I have included more than 20 scripts that you can test and build on.   This back-tester is different than the one I published in the Ultimate Algorithmic Trading System Toolbox.  It utilizes what I call the horizontal portfolio spanning paradigm.  Instead of sequentially testing different markets in a portfoio: It process data in the following manner: This form of testing allows for decisions to be made on a portfolio basis at the end of any historic bar.   Things like inputting portfolio performance into an allocation formula is super simple.  However, this paradigm opens up a lot of different “what-if” scenarios.

1. What If I Limit 2 Markets Per Sector
2. What If I Turn Off A Certain Sector
3. What If I Liquidate The Largest OTE loser
4. What If I Liquidate The Largest OTE winner
5. What If I Only Trade The Ten Markets With The Highest ADX Values

All the data and market performance and portfolio performance is right at your fingertips.  Your testing is only limited by your creativity.

The best part is you get to learn raw Python without having to install complicated libraries like SciKit, Numpy or Pandas.  You don’t even need to install distributions of commercial products – like Anaconda.  Don’t get me wrong I think Anaconda is awesome but many times it is overkill.  If you want to do machine learning then that is the way to go.  If you want to test simple Trend Following algorithms and make portfolio level decisions you don’t need a data science application.

There isn’t a complicated interface to learn.  Its all command line driven from Python’s IDLE.  90% of the source code is revealed for the back-testing software.  Its like one of those see-thru calculators.  You see all the circuits and semiconductors, but in Python.  So you will need to flow through the code to get to the sections that pertain to your test.  Here is a small sample of how you set up the testing parameters for a Donchian Script.

``````#--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#   If you want to ignore a bunch of non-eseential stuff then
#      S C R O L L   A L M O S T  H A L F   W A Y  D O W N
#--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#TradingSimula18.py - programmed by George Pruitt
#Built on the code and ideas from "The Ultimate Algorithmic Tradins System T-Box"
#Code is broken into sections
#Most sections can and should be ignored
#Each trading algorithm must be programmed with this template
#This is the main entry into the platform
#--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#Import Section - inlcude functions, classes, variables from external modules
#--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# --- Do  not change below here
from getData import getData
from equityDataClass import equityClass
from systemMarket import systemMarketClass
from indicators import highest,lowest,rsiClass,stochClass,sAverage,bollingerBands
from indicators import highest,lowest,rsiClass,stochClass,sAverage,bollingerBands,\
from portfolio import portfolioClass
from systemAnalytics import calcSystemResults
from utilityFunctions import getDataAtribs,getDataLists,roundToNearestTick,calcTodaysOTE
from utilityFunctions import setDataLists,removeDuplicates
from portManager import portManagerClass,systemMarkTrackerClass
from positionMatrixClass import positionMatrixClass
from barCountCalc import barCountCalc

from sectorClass import sectorClass, parseSectors, numPosCurrentSector,getCurrentSector
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Pay no attention to these two functions - unless you want to
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
def exitPos(myExitPrice,myExitDate,tempName,myCurShares):
if mp < 0:
if mp > 0:
curShares = 0
for remShares in range(0,len(entryQuant)):curShares += entryQuant[remShares]

global entryPrice,entryQuant,exitPrice,numShares,myBPV,cumuProfit
if entryOrExit == -1:
else:
profit = 0;curShares = curShares + shares;barsSinceEntry = 1;entryPrice.append(price);entryQuant.append(shares)

dataClassList = list()

marketMonitorList,masterDateList,masterDateGlob,entryPrice = ([] for i in range(4))
buy = entry = 1; sell = exit = -1; ignore = 0;
entryQuant,exitQuant,trueRanges,myBPVList = ([] for i in range(4))
myComNameList,myMinMoveList,systemMarketList = ([] for i in range(3))
cond1,cond2,cond3,cond4 = ([] for i in range(4))
marketVal1,marketVal2,marketVal3,marketVal4 = ([] for i in range(4))
portManager = portManagerClass();marketList = getData();portfolio = portfolioClass()
numMarkets = len(marketList);positionMatrix = positionMatrixClass();positionMatrix.numMarkets = numMarkets
firstMarketLoop = True

#----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Set up algo parameters here
#----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
startTestDate = 20100101 #must be in yyyymmdd
stopTestDate = 20190228 #must be in yyyymmdd
rampUp = 100 # need this minimum of bars to calculate indicators
sysName = 'Donch-MAX2NSect' #System Name here
initCapital = 500000
commission = 100``````
Ignore Most Of This Code

Everything is batched processed: set up, pick market or portfolio, run.  Then examine all of the reports.  Here is an example of the sector analysis report.

``````          Total Profit  Max DrawDown
Currency    -------------------------------
BP           -14800      19062
SF            -8600      53575
DX            10180      10279
EC            -9000      16775
JY            10025      18913
CD           -19720      21830
-------------------------------------------
Totals:      -27245      69223
-------------------------------------------
Energies    -------------------------------
CL           -40400      55830
HO            80197      23382
NG           -14870      28920
RB           -45429      61419
-------------------------------------------
Totals:      -20502      75957
-------------------------------------------
Metals      -------------------------------
GC            27210      36610
SI            -1848       2389
HG            -2402       2438
PL           -16750      25030
PA            27230      38615
-------------------------------------------
Totals:       33440      61472
-------------------------------------------
Grains      -------------------------------
S_            27312       9088
W_           -25538      32600
C_            -1838      12212
BO            -8460       9544
SM              390      11250
RR            -1390      12060
-------------------------------------------
Totals:       -9523      34135
-------------------------------------------
Financials  -------------------------------
US            29488      18375
TY              969      12678
TU            -2020       3397
FV            -2616       4531
ED            -4519       4869
-------------------------------------------
Totals:       21302      30178
-------------------------------------------
Softs       -------------------------------
SB            -1716      19717
KC            15475      44413
CC              540       8090
CT            -8705      35660
LB            22269      16586
OJ             4720       8262
-------------------------------------------
Totals:       32583      57976
-------------------------------------------
Meats       -------------------------------
LC           -18910      24020
LH           -31270      35640
FC            14600      25737
-------------------------------------------
Totals:      -35580      59550
-------------------------------------------``````
Sector Analysis

Plus I include EasyLanguage for the majority of the scripts.  Of course without the portfolio level management.  I am working on a new website that will support the new book at TrendFollowingSystems.com.

Please take a look at my latest book – it would make an awesome Christmas present.

# Keith’s Book

Thanks to MJ for planting the seed for this post.  If you were one of the lucky ones to get Keith’s “Building Reliable Trading SystemsTradable Strategies that Perform as They Backtest and Meet Your Risk-Reward Goals”  book by John Wiley 2013 at the list price of \$75 count yourself lucky.  The book sells for a multiple of that on Amazon.com.  Is there anything earth shattering in the book you might ask?  I wouldn’t necessarily say that, but there are some very well thought out and researched topics that most traders would find of interest.

## Bar Scoring

In his book Keith discusses the concept of bar-scoring.  In Keith’s words, “Bar-scoring is an objective way to classify an instrument’s movement potential every bar.  The two parts of the bar-scoring are the criterion and the resultant profit X days hence.”  Keith provides several bar scoring techniques, but I highlight just one. Keith broke these patterns down into the relationship of the close to the open, and close in the upper half of the range; close greater than the open and close in the lower half of the range.  He extended the total number of types to 8 by adding the relationship of the close of the bar to yesterdays bar.

The PatternSmasher code can run through a binary representation

for each pattern and test holding the position for an optimizable number of days.  It can also check for long and short positions.  The original Pattern Smasher code used a for-loop to create patterns that were then compared to the real life facsimile.  In this code it was easier to just manually define the patterns and assign them the binary string.

``````if c> c and c > o and c > (h + l)/2  then patternString = "----";
if c> c and c > o and c < (h + l)/2  then patternString = "---+";
if c> c and c < o and c > (h + l)/2  then patternString = "--+-";
if c> c and c < o and c < (h + l)/2  then patternString = "--++";
if c< c and c > o and c > (h + l)/2  then patternString = "-+--";
if c< c and c > o and c < (h + l)/2  then patternString = "-+-+";
if c< c and c < o and c > (h + l)/2  then patternString = "-++-";
if c< c and c < o and c < (h + l)/2  then patternString = "-+++";``````
Manual Pattern Designations

Please check my code for any errors.  Here I go through the 8 different relationships and assign them to a Patter String.  “-+++”  represents pattern number (7 ) or type (7 + 1 = 8 – my strings start out at 0).  You can then optimize the test pattern and if the test pattern matches the actual pattern, then the Pattern Smasher takes the trade  on the opening of the next bar and holds it for the number of days you specify.  You an also designate long and short positions in the code.  Here I optimized the 8 patterns going long and short and holding from 1-4 days. Here is the equity curve!  Remember these are Hypothetical Results with \$0 commission/slippage and historic performance is not necessarily indicative of future results.  Educational purposes only!  This is tested on ES.D Play around with the code and let me know if you find any errors or any improvements.

``````input: patternTests(8),orbAmount(0.20),LorS(1),holdDays(0),atrAvgLen(10),enterNextBarAtOpen(true);

var: patternTest(""),patternString(""),tempString("");
var: iCnt(0),jCnt(0);
array: patternBitChanger(0);

{written by George Pruitt -- copyright 2019 by George Pruitt
This will test a 4 day pattern based on the open to close
relationship.  A plus represents a close greater than its
open, whereas a minus represents a close less than its open.
The default pattern is set to pattern 14 +++- (1110 binary).
You can optimize the different patterns by optimizing the
patternTests input from 1 to 16 and the orbAmount from .01 to
whatever you like.  Same goes for the hold days, but in this
case you optimize start at zero.  The LorS input can be
optimized from 1 to 2 with 1 being buy and 2 being sellshort.}

patternString = "";
patternTest = "";

patternBitChanger = 0;
patternBitChanger = 0;
patternBitChanger = 0;
patternBitChanger = 0;

value1 = patternTests - 1;

//example patternTests = 0 -- > 0000
//example patternTests = 1 -- > 0001
//example patternTests = 2 -- > 0010
//example patternTests = 3 -- > 0011
//example patternTests = 4 -- > 0100
//example patternTests = 5 -- > 0101
//example patternTests = 6 -- > 0110
//example patternTests = 7 -- > 0111

if(value1 >= 0) then
begin

if(mod(value1,2) = 1) or value1 = 1 then patternBitChanger = 1;
value2 = value1 - patternBitChanger * 1;

if(value2 >= 7) then begin
patternBitChanger = 1;
value2 = value2 - 8;
end;

if(value2 >= 4) then begin
patternBitChanger = 1;
value2 = value2 - 4;
end;
if(value2 = 2) then patternBitChanger = 1;
end;

for iCnt = 3 downto 0  begin
if(patternBitChanger[iCnt] = 1) then
begin
patternTest = patternTest + "+";
end
else
begin
patternTest = patternTest + "-";
end;
end;

patternString = "";

if c> c and c > o and c > (h + l)/2  then patternString = "----";
if c> c and c > o and c < (h + l)/2  then patternString = "---+";
if c> c and c < o and c > (h + l)/2  then patternString = "--+-";
if c> c and c < o and c < (h + l)/2  then patternString = "--++";
if c< c and c > o and c > (h + l)/2  then patternString = "-+--";
if c< c and c > o and c < (h + l)/2  then patternString = "-+-+";
if c< c and c < o and c > (h + l)/2  then patternString = "-++-";
if c< c and c < o and c < (h + l)/2  then patternString = "-+++";

if(barNumber = 1) then print(elDateToString(date)," pattern ",patternTest," ",patternTests-1);
if(patternString = patternTest) then
begin

//   print(date," ",patternString," ",patternTest); //uncomment this and you can print out the pattern
if (enterNextBarAtOpen) then
begin
if(LorS = 2) then SellShort("PatternSell") next bar on open;
end
else
begin
if(LorS = 2) then SellShort("PatternSellBO") next bar at open of tomorrow - avgTrueRange(atrAvgLen) * orbAmount stop;
if(LorS = 1) then buy("PatternBuyBO") next bar at open of tomorrow + avgTrueRange(atrAvgLen) * orbAmount stop;
end;

end;

if(holdDays = 0 ) then setExitonClose;
if(holdDays > 0) then
begin
if(barsSinceEntry = holdDays and LorS = 2) then BuyToCover("xbarLExit") next bar at open;
if(barsSinceEntry = holdDays and LorS = 1) then Sell("xbarSExit") next bar at open;
end;``````
Bar Scoring Testing Template

# How To Program A Ratcheting Stop in EasyLanguage 30 Minute Break Out utilizing a Ratchet Stop [7 point profit with 6 point retention]I have always been a big fan of trailing stops.  They serve two purposes – lock in some profit and give the market room to vacillate.  A pure trailing stop will move up as the market makes new highs, but a ratcheting stop (my version) only moves up when a certain increment or multiple of profit has been achieved.  Here is a chart of a simple 30 minute break out on the ES day session.  I plot the buy and short levels and the stop level based on whichever level is hit first.

When you program something like this you never know what is the best profit trigger or the best profit retention value.  So, you should program this as a function of these two values.  Here is the code.

``````inputs: ratchetAmt(6),trailAmt(6);
vars:longMult(0),shortMult(0),myBarCount(0);
vars:lep(0),sep(0);

If d <> d then
Begin
longMult = 0;
shortMult = 0;
myBarCount = 0;
mp = 0;
lep = 0;
sep = 0;
shortsToday = 0;
end;

myBarCount = myBarCount + 1;

If myBarCount = 6 then  // six 5 min bars = 30 minutes
Begin
stb = highD(0);  //get the high of the day
sts = lowD(0);   //get low of the day
end;

If myBarCount >= 6 and buysToday + shortsToday = 0 and high >= stb then
begin
mp = 1;  //got long - illustrative purposes only
lep = stb;

end;
If myBarCount >=6 and buysToday + shortsToday = 0 and low <= sts then begin
mp = -1; //got short
sep = sts;
end;

If myBarCount >=6 then
Begin
plot4(sts,"shortLevel");
end;
If mp = 1 then buysToday = 1;
If mp =-1 then shortsToday = 1;

// Okay initially you want a X point stop and then pull the stop up
// or down once price exceeds a multiple of Y points
// longMult keeps track of the number of Y point multipes of profit
// always key off of lep(LONG ENTRY POINT)
// notice how I used + 1 to determine profit
// and -  1 to determine stop level
If mp = 1 then
Begin
If h >= lep + (longMult + 1) * ratchetAmt then	longMult = longMult + 1;
plot1(lep + (longMult - 1) *  trailAmt,"LE-Ratchet");
end;

If mp = -1 then
Begin
If l <= sep - (shortMult + 1) * ratchetAmt then	shortMult = shortMult + 1;
plot2(sep - (shortMult - 1) *  trailAmt,"SE-Ratchet");
end;``````
Ratcheting Stop Code

So, basically I set my multiples to zero on the first bar of the trading session.  If the multiple = 0 and you get into a long position, then your initial stop will be entryPrice + (0 – 1) * trailAmt.  In other words your stop will be trailAmt (6 in this case) below entryPrce.  Once price exceeds or meets 7 points above entry price, you increment the multiple (now 1.)  So, you stop becomes entryPrice + (1-1) * trailAmt – which equals a break even stop.  This logic will always move the first stop to break even.  Assume the market moves 2 multiples into profit (14 points), what would your stop be then?

stop = entryPrice + (2 – 1) * 6 or entryPrice + 6 points.

See how it ratchets.  Now you can optimized the profit trigger and profit retention values.  Since I am keying of entryPrice your first trailing stop move will be a break-even stop.

This isn’t a strategy but it could very easily be turned into one.

# Question on Multiple Time Indicator [Discrete Bars]

A reader of this blog proffered an excellent question on this indicator.  I hope this post answers his question and I am always open to any input that might improve my coding!

Because I use BarNumber in my MODULUS calculation the different time frames that I keep track of may not align with the time frames on the chart; your 10-minute bar O, H, L, and C values may not align with the values I am storing in my 10-minute bar container.    Take a look at this snapshot of a spreadsheet. Here I  print out a 5-minute bar of the ES.D.  Because I use BarNumber in my Modulus calculation, I don’t get to a zero remainder until  9:50 in the 10, 15, and 20 minute time frames.  At 9:50 I start building fresh 10, 15, 20 minute bars by resetting the O, H, L and C to those of the 5-minute bars.  From there I keep track of the highest highs and lowest lows by extracting the data from the 5-minute bar.  I always set the close of the different time frames to the current 5-minute bar’s close.   Once the modulus for the different time frames reaches zero I close out the bar and start fresh again.  The 25-minute bar didn’t reach zero until the 10:05 bar.

I will see if I can come up with some code that will sync with the data on the chart.

# Passing a Two Dimensional Array to a Function- EasyLanguage

In this post, I want to share some code that I was surprised wasn’t really all that accessible.  I was in need of passing a 2-D array to a function and couldn’t remember the exact syntax.  The semantics of the problem is pretty straightforward.

• Build Array
• Pass Array as Reference
• Unpack Array
• Do Calculation

# A 2D Array Is Just Like a Table

Any readers please correct me if I am wrong here, but you can’t use dynamic arrays on any dimension greater than 1.  A dynamic array is one where you don’t initially know the size of the array so you leave it blank and TradeStation allocates memory dynamically.  Also, there are a plethora of built-in functions that only work with dynamic arrays.  Once we step up in dimension then that all goes out the window.  I know what you are thinking, just use multiple dynamic arrays.  Sometimes you want to keep the accounting down to a minimum and a matrix or table fits this bill.  So if you do use multi-dimension arrays just remember you will need to know the total number of rows and columns in your table.  Table?  What do you mean table?  I thought we were talking about arrays.  Well, we are and a two-dimensional array can look like a table with rows as your first index and columns as your second.  Just like an Excel spreadsheet.  First, let’s create a very small and simple table in EasyLangauge:

``````array: testArray[2,2](0);

Once
begin
testArray[0,0] = 100;
testArray[0,1] = 5;

testArray[1,0] = 200;
testArray[1,1] = 10;

testArray[2,0] = 300;
testArray[2,1] = 7.5;

Value2 = getArrayHH(testArray,2,2);
Print (value2);

end;``````
Create a Very Small Table in Our Sandbox

# My EasyLanguage Sandbox

You will notice I used the keyword Once.  I use this whenever I want to play around with some code in my EasyLanguage Sandbox.  Huh?  In programmer-ese a Sandbox is a quick and dirty environment that runs very quickly and requires nearly zero overhead.  So here I apply the code to print out just one line of output when applied to any chart.   Notice how I declare the 2-D array – use the keyword Array: and the name of the array or table and allocate the total number of rows as the first argument and the total number of columns as the second argument.  Also notice the arguments are separated by a comma and enclosed in square brackets.  The following value enclosed in parentheses is the default value of every element in the array.    Remember arrays are zero-based in EasyLanguage.  So if you dimension an array with the number 2 you access the rows with 0 and 1 and 2.  Same goes for columns as well.  Did you catch that.  If you dimension an array with the number 2 shouldn’t there be just 2 rows?  Well in EasyLanguage when you dimension an array you get a free element at row 0 and column 0.  In EasyLanguage you can just ignore row 0 and column 0 if you like.  Here is the code if you ignore row 0 and column 0.

## Should I Use Row 0 and Column Zero – It’s A Preference

``````array: testArray[2,2](0);

Once
begin
testArray[1,1] = 100;
testArray[1,2] = 5;

testArray[2,1] = 200;
testArray[2,2] = 10;

Value2 = getArrayHH(testArray,2,2);
Print (value2);

end;``````
Ignore the Elements at Row 0 and Column 0

### Out Of Bounds

Even though you get one free row you still cannot go beyond the boundaries of the array size.  If I were to say something like:

testArray[3,1] = 300;

I would get an error message.  If you want to work with a zero element then all of your code must coincide with that.  If not, then your code shouldn’t try to access row 0 or column 0.    Okay here is the function that I programmed for this little test:

``````inputs: tempArray[x,y](numericArray),numOfRows(numericSimple),whichColumn(numericSimple);

vars: j(0),tempHi(0),cnt(0);

For j= 1 to numOfRows
Begin
print(j," ",tempArray[j,whichColumn]);
If tempArray[j,whichColumn] > tempHi then tempHi = tempArray[j,whichColumn];
end;

GetArrayHH = tempHi;``````
Function That Utilizes a 2D Array

Notice in the inputs how I declare the tempArray with the values x and y.  You could have used a and b if you like or any other letters.  This informs the compiler to expect a 2D array.  It doesn’t know the size and that’s not important as long as you control the boundaries from the calling routine.  The second parameter is the number of rows in the table and the third parameter is the column I am interested in.  In this example, I am interested in column 2.

### The Caller Function is the QuarterBack – Make Sure You Don’t Throw it Out of Bounds

Again this function assumes the caller will prevent stepping out of bounds.  I loop the number of rows in the table and examine the second column and keep track of the highest value.  I then return the highest column value.

This was a simple post, but remembering the syntax can be tough and know that EasyLangauge is zero-based when it comes to arrays is nice to know.   You can also use this format for your own Sandbox.

# MULTI-TIME FRAME – KEEPING TRACK OF DISCRETE TIME FRAMES

Just a quick post here.  I was asked how to keep track of the opening price for each time frame from our original Multi-Time Frame indicator and I was answering the question when I thought about modifying the indicator.  This version keeps track of each discrete time frame.  The original simply looked back a multiple of the base chart to gather the highest highs and lowest lows and then would do a simple calculation to determine the trend.  So let’s say its 1430 on a five-minute bar and you are looking back at time frame 2.  All I did was get the highest high and lowest low two bars back and stored that information as the high and low of time frame 2.  Time frame 3 simply looked back three bars to gather that information.  However if you tried to compare these values to a 10-minute or 15-minute chart they would not match.

In this version, I use the modulus function to determine the demarcation of each time frame.  If I hit the border of the time frame I reset the open, high, low and carry that value over until I hit the next demarcation.  All the while collecting the highest highs and lowest lows.  In this model, I am working my way from left to right instead of right to left.  And in doing so each time frame is discrete.

Let me know which version you like best.

``````Inputs:tf1Mult(2),tf2Mult(3),tf3Mult(4),tf4Mult(5);

vars: mtf1h(0),mtf1l(0),mtf1o(0),mtf1c(0),mtf1pvt(0),diff1(0),
mtf2h(0),mtf2l(0),mtf2o(0),mtf2c(0),mtf2pvt(0),diff2(0),
mtf3h(0),mtf3l(0),mtf3o(0),mtf3c(0),mtf3pvt(0),diff3(0),
mtf4h(0),mtf4l(0),mtf4o(0),mtf4c(0),mtf4pvt(0),diff4(0),
mtf0pvt(0),diff0(0);

If barNumber = 1 then
Begin
mtf1o = o;
mtf2o = o;
mtf3o = o;
mtf4o = o;
end;

If barNumber > 1 then
Begin

Condition1 =  mod((barNumber+1),tf1Mult) = 0;
Condition2 =  mod((barNumber+1),tf2Mult) = 0;
Condition3 =  mod((barNumber+1),tf3Mult) = 0;
Condition4 =  mod((barNumber+1),tf4Mult) = 0;

mtf1h = iff(not(condition1),maxList(high,mtf1h),high);
mtf1l = iff(not(condition1),minList(low,mtf1l),low);
mtf1o = iff(condition1,open,mtf1o);
mtf1c = close;

mtf0pvt = (close + high + low) / 3;
diff0 = close - mtf0pvt;

mtf2h = iff(not(condition2),maxList(high,mtf2h),high);
mtf2l = iff(not(condition2),minList(low,mtf2l),low);
mtf2o = iff(condition2,open,mtf2o);
mtf2c = close;

mtf1pvt = (mtf1h+mtf1l+mtf1c) / 3;
diff1 = mtf1c - mtf1pvt;

mtf2pvt = (mtf2h+mtf2l+mtf2c) / 3;
diff2 = mtf2c - mtf2pvt;

mtf3h = iff(not(condition3),maxList(high,mtf3h),high);
mtf3l = iff(not(condition3),minList(low,mtf3l),low);
mtf3o = iff(condition3,open,mtf3o);
mtf3c = close;

mtf3pvt = (mtf3h+mtf3l+mtf3c) / 3;
diff3 = mtf3c - mtf3pvt;

mtf4h = iff(not(condition4),maxList(high,mtf4h),high);
mtf4l = iff(not(condition4),minList(low,mtf4l),low);
mtf4o = iff(condition4,open,mtf4o);
mtf4c = close;

mtf4pvt = (mtf4h+mtf4l+mtf4c) / 3;
diff4 = mtf4c - mtf4pvt;

Condition10 = diff0 > 0;
Condition11 = diff1 > 0;
Condition12 = diff2 > 0;
Condition13 = diff3 > 0;
Condition14 = diff4 > 0;

If condition10 then setPlotColor(1,Green) else SetPlotColor(1,Red);
If condition11 then setPlotColor(2,Green) else SetPlotColor(2,Red);
If condition12 then setPlotColor(3,Green) else SetPlotColor(3,Red);
If condition13 then setPlotColor(4,Green) else SetPlotColor(4,Red);
If condition14 then setPlotColor(5,Green) else SetPlotColor(5,Red);

condition6 = condition10 and condition11 and condition12 and condition13 and condition14;
Condition7 = not(condition10) and not(condition11) and not(condition12) and not(condition13) and not(condition14);

If condition6 then setPlotColor(7,Green);
If condition7 then setPlotColor(7,Red);

If condition6 or condition7 then plot7(7,"trend");

Plot6(5,"line");
Plot1(4,"t1");
Plot2(3,"t2");
Plot3(2,"t3");
Plot4(1,"t4");
Plot5(0,"t5");

end;``````
Multi-Time Frame with Discrete Time Frames